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Charles, along with her research team, used makanan khas bali an income-to-need ratio to understand how far above or below a family was from the federal poverty line.

They found that programs targeted for families already living in poverty, called in-kind benefits, like housing subsidies and food stamps, were found to significantly improve Black children's income-to-needs ratio. For example, researchers found that housing subsidies increased the income-needs ratio of Black children living in poverty by 25 percent, as opposed to 6.7 percent for White children.


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However, programs like food stamps and housing subsidies are specifically targeted where families can only spend those dollars on specific items or services. That can create undue limitations for families, as Christopher Wimer, co-director of CPSP, explained.

"We treated $1 food stamps equivalent to $1 cash in this poverty measurement framework, but you can't do anything with food stamps other than buy food. So, if you're in a jam, and you need to buy diapers, or pay a utility bill, then we know that, you can't use your food stamps to help out with that," Wimer said.


On the other hand, cash benefits and tax credits, like the Child Tax Credit and Social Security, are considered straight slotgacor cash that do not hold spending requirements. These types of social programs were found to disproportionately help white children with their income-to-needs ratio at 80 percent. Black children's income-to-needs ratio only improved by about 37 percent.

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